What are semiconductors?
A semiconductor is a substance (usually a solid chemical or compound) with different electrical properties: in some cases, it will conduct electricity, but not in others. Thus, power control is enabled. Semiconductor treatment varies depending on the current or voltage applied to the control electrode, or the intensity of infrared light (IR), visible light, ultraviolet (UV), or X-rays.
Semiconductors can be found at the heart of modern electronics. Other examples include microprocessor chips and transistors, and almost any device manufactured by computer or using radio waves depends on semiconductors. Today, the most important commercially available semiconductor is silicon, although many others are used.
What is graphene? Is it good for semiconductors?
Graphene is a thick layer of one atom of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice. Graphite structure (used, among other things, in pencil tips), but graphene is a remarkable one - with a host of amazing structures that repeatedly receive the title "wonder material".
Graphene is the smallest known human being in a single thick atom, and also incredibly strong - about 300 times stronger than steel. In addition, graphene is a leading conductor of heat and electricity and has interesting light-absorbing properties. Graphene has the ability to modify many operating systems, including solar cells, batteries, sensors, and more.
Graphene based semiconductor-
Semiconductors are defined by the gap in their band, the force required to activate an electron attached to a valence band, where it can conduct electricity, in a conductor band. The band gap needs to be large enough for there to be a clear difference between the open and closed circuits of the transistor, and in order to process information without producing errors. Among the best features of graphene is special electrical flexibility. This structure makes the material attractive to many systems, but it is problematic to use it as a semiconductor. Therefore, graphene will need a bandgap (which is often lacking), or in other words to not only act as a driver but also have a protective mode. Scientists have found various ways to introduce bandgap on graphene. By making graphene into certain shapes (such as ribbons), by using certain growth patterns that are paired with objects, by applying graphene's morphological, by using doping material and so on. Other 2D materials can be used instead or in combination with graphene, which has a natural bandgap. These devices can be seen as an easy way to devices based on next-generation semiconductor devices.
Can graphene revolutionize the semiconductor industry?
As many tragic discoveries, the testing and commercial use of graphene and carbon nanotubes takes significant time to complete its development, refinement and testing. Since its first discovery at the University of Manchester in 2004, graphene has remained prominent, especially in both the semiconductor and electronics industries. Although graphene is thinner than a single strand of human hair, it has been shown to be 300 times stronger than iron. Since 2004, over 25,000 graphene-based patents have been filed; the number is expected to continue to grow. While this may be true, the widespread use of graphene in the semiconductor industry has several drawbacks, some of which include finding industrial methods capable of mass production of graphene, coating and transfer processes, and retaining values such as silicon, associated property.
Graphene has great potential as the next generation semiconductor material due to its unique properties, such as its high mobility which has been shown to be up to 250 times higher than silicon, low loss requirements, low density and flexibility. Graphene switches could not be closed without proper band-gap engineering and therefore, its band-gap limit puzzle needs to be solved before its commercial use. Another important problem that impedes the ability of industries to assess the total strength of graphene is its compatibility with compatible metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compounds. Considering the recent advances in research conducted on the full potential of graphene, the future of the graphene-based semiconductor industry remains promising.
Scope of Graphene based semiconductor:
The replacement of silicon with graphene is expected to occur in three stages
- Improving Silicon's Properties.
- Graphene in place of silicon.
- By Revolutionizing Electronics.
To prevent the spread of contact, 14 nanometer (nm) metal bars of tantalum nitride are used. Over the next few years, researchers are expecting a replacement for graphene for existing external protective layers because, in just one eighth of the size of current materials including ruthenium or cobalt, graphene is expected to significantly improve the reliability and performance of 30 % connectors speeds.
Assuming that a solution to overcome the graphene gap limit band will emerge in the near future, graphene may, in theory, replace silicon as a semiconductor element in electronics requiring high speed, low loss requirements, low density and flexibility. Graphene market is estimated at higher valuation in a wide range of areas including data processing, wireless communication and consumer electricity.